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Any abnormalities that occur during the surgery are corrected by administering additional medications, fluids and, sometimes, blood transfusions.When the surgery is complete, the anesthesia drugs are discontinued, and you gradually wake up, usually in the operating recovery room.The type of anesthesia used depends on: • what kind of surgery the patient is having • how long the surgery will last • location of the surgery (where in the body) • how intricate the surgery will be • the age and overall health of the patient • the anesthesiologist’s personal expertise, judgment and preference.The goals of anesthesia are: • loss of consciousness • to block the patient’s memory of the procedure • to maintain the body’s physiologic stability • to prevent or reduce pain • to relax the skeletal muscles • to stop the body’s normal reflexes Balanced anesthesia uses a combination of anesthetic agents that enhances the desired effects and limits the undesired side effects.
They work by depressing the central nervous system. – Benzodiazepines – Side effects of benzodiazepines (Valium, Versed) – drowsiness, confusion, dizziness, weakness, headache, tremors, eyes crossing, clumsiness, and trouble thinking or speaking.They cause unconsciousness, relax the muscles and make the patient unresponsive to pain.These agents can impair breathing and blood flow, depress the heart muscle and impair kidney function and liver function.They also impair breathing, heart function and may affect renal and liver function. Agents – these are commonly combined with inhalation agents for numbing, muscle relaxation and inducing general anesthesia. – Opiods (narcotics) – The side effects of opioids are depression of the central nervous system, difficulty breathing, breathing slower than normal or shallow breathing, abnormal heart rate or rhythms, constipation.Other side effects include over reaction to the medicine, confusion, sedation, nausea, vomiting, abnormal heart rhythm, and a drop in body temperature. For short surgeries or when short acting anesthesia is needed, I. – Dissociative agents – Side effects of dissociative agents are delirium, hallucinations, disorientation, excitement, high blood pressure, rapid heart beat, and increase in intracranial pressure.